Atmospheric science is bred in the process of people’s continuous adaptation and transformation of nature. With the rise of big data and artificial intelligence technology, atmospheric science will play a more important role in global sustainable development in the future. This paper reviews the development process of atmospheric science from ancient times to now, expounds the achievements and characteristics of five development stages, and looks forward to its future development.
one Age of visual observation
Weather changes mainly rely on experience to summarize, while some have formed meteorological proverbs, that is, qualitatively give the relationship between weather phenomena. For climate and phenological changes, a characteristic “24 solar terms” has been formed in China.
Figure 1 Schematic diagram of the relationship between the twenty-four solar terms and the earth’s orbit
two Instrument measurement Era
The invention of meteorological observation instruments marks the arrival of the era of meteorological observation. In order to quantitatively measure various physical quantities and serve the needs of navigation and industry, Western scientists invented various instruments to quantitatively measure meteorological elements.
Figure 2 Galileo thermometer
three Weather map Era
In 1854, the British and French allied forces encountered a storm on the Black Sea and almost all the troops were destroyed. The Crimean War led to the birth of weather forecasting and marked the beginning of modern weather forecasting. In 1856, France established the first formal weather service system. Weather map is the beginning of modern weather forecast. It expands weather forecast from point to surface, and makes people leap from “sitting on the well and watching the sky” to “looking at the world”.
Figure 3 Crimean naval battle imagination
four The age of Meteorology
During this period, the Norwegian School and Chicago school, which contributed greatly to modern weather forecasting, were formed. Meteorologists of this era established the modern model of cyclone, put forward baroclinic instability theory, barotropic instability theory and dispersion theory of atmospheric long wave, and established the theoretical system of atmospheric wave dynamics.
Figure 4 Vilhelm Bjerknes
five Era of Atmospheric Science
Meteorological science is not only a science to study the state and change law of the atmosphere, but also a comprehensive science to study the dynamic, physical and chemical processes of the interaction between the atmosphere and the surrounding ocean, land surface, ice and snow and biosphere.
Figure 5 Schematic diagram of Earth climate system
At present, the development of atmospheric science is more and more closely related to social progress and public demand. The technological progress in this field mainly depends on the development of observation means, communication and computer technology, mathematical physics and other basic disciplines.
Recently, the wide application of artificial intelligence and big data technology has attracted the attention and favor of the world’s mainstream meteorological science centers, and will also provide new methods and ideas for the development of atmospheric science.